Ion Tests

Deduce the ions present in a sample from the results of tests

Perform first-hand investigations to carry out a range of tests, including flame tests, to identify the following ions:
    • phosphate
    • sulfate
    • carbonate
    • chloride
    • barium
    • calcium
    • lead
    • copper
    • iron

Precipitate test(s)
Flame test(s)
Other Test(s)
Barium (Ba2+)
• SO42-: White
• OH- or F+: None
Calcium (Ca2+) SO42-: White
• F-: White
Lead (Pb2+) • Cl-: White
• I-: Yellow
Copper (Cu2+)OH-: Blue, dissolves in NH3 to form deep blue solutionBlue-green-
Iron II (Fe2+)OH-: White, turns brown-
Decolourises dilute potassium permanganate solution
Iron III (Fe3+)OH-: Brown-
SCN-: Deep red solution
Cation tests

Precipitate test(s)
Other test(s)
Carbonate (CO32-)-
pH between 8 and 11.
Acid (H+): Bubbles of colourless odourless gas (CO2)
Sulfate (SO42-) Ba(NO3)2 (to acidified sample): Thick white
Pb(NO3)2 (to acidified sample): White
Chloride (Cl-)AgNO3 (to acidified sample): Thick white, dissolves in ammonia and darkens in sunlight-
Phosphate (PO43-) NH4 followed by Ba(NO3)2: White
Mg2+ in an ammonia, ammonium nitrate buffer: White
Anion tests

Copper flame test

Easychem - Ion Tests (Anion)

Easychem - Ion tests (Cation)